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This annual report describes NYC DOT's work in maintaining 803 City bridges and tunnels. Because of the length of each report, some have been divided into several documents for easier access. These documents are in pdf format.Read more bridge documents in the NYC DOT Library
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Topics in the Coast Pilot include channel descriptions, anchorages, bridge and cable clearances, currents, tide and water levels, prominent features, pilotage, towage, weather, ice conditions, wharf descriptions, dangers, routes, traffic separation schemes, small-craft facilities, and Federal regulations applicable to navigation.
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Over 140 experts, 14 countries, and 89 chapters are represented in the second edition of the Bridge Engineering Handbook. This extensive collection highlights bridge engineering specimens from around the world, contains detailed information on bridge engineering, and thoroughly explains the concepts and practical applications surrounding the subject.
Published in five books: Fundamentals, Superstructure Design, Substructure Design, Seismic Design, and Construction and Maintenance, this new edition provides numerous worked-out examples that give readers step-by-step design procedures, includes contributions by leading experts from around the world in their respective areas of bridge engineering, contains 26 completely new chapters, and updates most other chapters. It offers design concepts, specifications, and practice, as well as the various types of bridges. The text includes over 2,500 tables, charts, illustrations, and photos. The book covers new, innovative and traditional methods and practices; explores rehabilitation, retrofit, and maintenance; and examines seismic design and building materials.
We propose a simple expression for the rupture energy of a pendular liquid bridge between two spheres, taking into account capillary and viscous (lubrication) forces. In the case of capillary forces only, the results are in accordance with curve fitting expressions proposed by Simons et al.  and Willett et al. . We performed accurate measurements of the force exerted by liquid bridges between two spheres. Experimental results are found to be close to theoretical values. A reasonable agreement is also found in the presence of viscous forces. Finally, for small bridge volumes, the rupture criterion given by Lian et al.  is modified, taking into account additional viscous effects.
Bridge Detail Sheets are backed by engineering analysis, calculations, crash testing, and are approved by NHDOT Administrators and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Only certain details can be modified by designers. As noted on each bridge sheet, if any modifications are made to details other than those noted, the engineer responsible for the modifications becomes the Engineer of Record (EOR) for those details and all effects the modifications have on other components within the sheet.
A clearer conceptual framework is thus needed to guide the identification of bridge hosts and the characterisation of their roles in disease ecology. This framework must also be operationalised if it is to guide the design of hypotheses that can be tested through field protocols to characterise the role(s) of hosts in disease ecology.
Using the different target-maintenance systems proposed by Haydon et al. , bridge hosts can be included in target-bridge-maintenance systems in several ways (Figure 1). According to our definition, a bridge host is involved in the transmission function while not involved in the maintenance function. Two main prerequisites must be fulfilled for a host to qualify as a bridge host. The first prerequisite is that the host must be competent for the pathogen (i.e., must be receptive to infection, permit pathogen replication, and be able to excrete it) without being able to maintain it alone, in which case the host would be considered as a maintenance host; or alternatively, the host should be able to mechanically transport the pathogen [20,21]. Its competence will influence the capacity of a bridge host to achieve the transmission function: if the bridge host has a short pathogen excretion period, it will be able to transmit the pathogen to a target population only if the time lag between contact with a maintenance and then a target host is shorter than the excretion period, or if the distance between target and maintenance is shorter than the maximum distance that the bridge host can travel during its excretion phase. Similarly, for mechanical transmission, the survival of the pathogen on/in the host body part (e.g. skin, hair, mouth, feathers) exposed to the external environment will determine for how long the host can play the bridge role.
The second prerequisite is that infectious contacts must occur along the maintenance-bridge-target transmission chain. These will depend on direct and indirect (e.g. environmental transmission) contacts, the mode of transmission of the pathogen, and the site of infection. The basic reproductive number R0 for the bridge host (not considering here mechanical transmission) should be
The behavioural dimension exists when the absence of contact between sympatric maintenance and target hosts is compensated for by another host that has infectious contacts with both. Situations may occur in which the microhabitat preferences and behaviours of maintenance and target hosts mean that they do not come into direct contact despite using the same locations on a daily basis. Bats, for example, are believed to be the maintenance host for Ebola, and can be sympatric with people; but Ebola transmission from bats to humans is enhanced by the great apes (whose susceptibility to Ebola seems to indicate that they are not maintenance hosts) which feed with bats and are fed upon by humans . It is interesting to note that in all cases, even a R0 close to zero (approximating a dead-end host) could still be important for the transmission function: the capacity to excrete the pathogen for a few hours, associated with some form of dispersal, may be sufficient for a bridge host to come into contact with the target host and infect it. For pathogens like Ebola, the range of hosts that is classically considered to be important in disease ecology may have to be broadened by including hosts that are able to transmit the pathogen over short time- and space-scales. These hosts are commonly considered as playing no role in pathogen ecology and are called dead-end hosts (e.g., most wild avian hosts for avian influenza virus - AIV - apart from Anseriformes and Charadriiformes). Amongst the multitude of those dead-end hosts, the bridge host perspective can identify some that do play a role in disease ecology.
With this framework in place, we next turn to the question of how bridge hosts can be identified in the multi-host context of AIV epidemiology and suggest an operational framework (partially implemented in ) that can enhance disease ecology as well as pathogen surveillance and control.
When poultry are confined in farms or buildings, their direct contacts with the maintenance waterfowl community, which mainly lives in wetlands and on coastal shorelines, are believed to be limited due to spatial segregation between populations. Many outbreaks of highly pathogenic AIV outbreaks have nonetheless occurred in domestic poultry production systems. It is therefore suspected that bridge hosts play a role in transmitting waterfowl-derived strains of AIV to poultry populations.
The ability of wild birds to travel long distances, and their ubiquity in most habitats, facilitate the potential for wild bird species to act as bridge hosts. Several constraints limit a better understanding of AIV ecology in bird communities: 1) high host diversity, that can include several hundred species in a given ecosystem; 2) the costs of diagnostic techniques that limit the number and type of samples (e.g. cloacal/tracheal swabs, blood) that can be analysed; and 3) the impossibility of randomly sampling from bird communities because of bias in capture techniques (e.g. walk-in traps, mist-nets). As a consequence, the information available on most wild bird species is scarce and has been obtained mostly from by-catch (i.e. captured non-targeted species) of studies investigating AIV in maintenance waterfowl, resulting in small sample sizes that are inadequate to provide epidemiological understanding of the host roles in AIV ecology in Africa . The following framework used in a recent study  and here developed in detail, aims at first gathering/collecting available ecological and epidemiological information; second, at synthesizing this information to provide a priority list of species that act as potential bridge hosts; and finally, at undertaking targeted sampling that can determine the competence of the high priority species and revisit the framed hypotheses.
The range of methods available to characterize host competence for AIV and contact patterns between maintenance, potential bridge and target host populations is drawn from the fields of epidemiology and avian ecology (Table 2). None of these methods alone is sufficient to identify a bridge host in a given ecosystem . Molecular epidemiology (e.g. gene sequencing after virus isolation) could in principle be used to identify bridge species but it is very unlikely that related strains from three different host populations (i.e., maintenance, bridge and target hosts) are concurrently isolated except perhaps during a localised AIV outbreak. Virological surveillance (e.g. polymerase chain reaction - PCR techniques) can provide information about host contacts between potential bridge and maintenance hosts if data are collected close to wetlands where waterfowl communities are known to occur. Serological investigation (e.g. ELISA tests) can be cheaper than virological testing but provide less information on the timing of the infection [27,28]. However, a combination of epidemiological and ecological methods could provide the necessary information to infer the bridge role of a given host population. 350c69d7ab